Abstract Format


Guidelines for Authors

Please follow the formatting instructions below when submitting an abstract: EXAMPLE


The title should be in bold, sentence case with no full stop at the end and no underlining, e.g.:

Results from experiments in this field


First name, middle initials if required, and surname with no full stop at the end. Underline the name of the corresponding author. A comma should separate author names. Where authors are from a number of different institutions, the appropriate institution number from the affiliation list should be given as a superscript number immediately after each author’s name, e.g.:

John Smith1, Susan Jones1, Bill Fisher2

  • An asterisk * should be used to link the corresponding author with their email address, if being included.

If the authors are presenting an abstract on behalf of a study group, this information should not be included in the author list, but should appear in an Acknowledgements section.



Affiliations should include department, institute, town and country. Where there are multiple affiliations, each should be listed as a separate paragraph. Each institute should appear in the order used against the author names (see above paragraph) and show the appropriate superscript number, e.g.:

1 Department, University, Town, State, USA

2 University, Town, State, UK

2 Company, Town, State, Canada


Main text

  • Should not be more than 300 words
  • Please use single line spacing
  • Type the text unjustified, without hyphenating words at line breaks
  • Use hard returns only to end headings and paragraphs, not to rearrange lines
  • Greek and other special characters may be included. If you are unable to reproduce a particular special character, please type out the name of the symbol in full
  • SI units should be used throughout (litre and molar are permitted, however)
  • Web links (URLs) should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, in the following format:
  • Mouse Tumour Biology Database [http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/cancer_links.html]
  • Abbreviations should be used as sparingly as possible and should be defined when first used

Research Article

Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background
  • Materials and methods
  • Results
  • Conclusion

Trial registration

The Publisher supports prospective registration of randomized controlled clinical trials. Abstracts related to RCTs should include the trial registry along with the unique identifying number.

Trial registers that currently meet our requirements can be found at http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials- registration/.


Case Report

The Abstract should not exceed 300 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background
  • Case report
  • Conclusion

Consent to publish: 

If the abstract contains details relating to individual participants (for example a case report), written informed consent for the publication of these details must be obtained from the participants, and a statement to this effect must appear at the end of the abstract. 

Guidelines for consent statements can be found here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/editorialpolicies.

If the patient is deceased, consent for publication should be obtained from the next of kin; if the patient is under 16, consent should be obtained from the parent or guardian.